OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIAL UROPATHOGENS AMONG ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY USERS AND NON-USERS, CAPE COAST TEACHING HOSPITAL

Prince Amoah Barnie, Samuel Akwetey, Murjana Hussein Swallah, Desmond Omane Acheampong, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako

Abstract


Background: Antiretroviral drugs were introduced to help reduce HIV mortality rate by increasing the immunity of the infected persons, to reduce the viral load of the virus and to take advantage of its additional benefits such as its effectiveness against bacteremia and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The purpose of the study is to investigate the prevalence rate of asymptomatic UTIs among ART users and non-users, and to identify the causative agents and their susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents. 

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2018 at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital. A single ‘clean catch’ urine was obtained from 240 HIV patients and immediately sent to the laboratory for culture. The isolates were considered significant if there were ≥105 colony forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). Significant isolates were identified by methods, such as Gram staining and biochemical tests. Various descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out using SPSS version 21 and the P-values <0.05 were considered significant.

 Results: Out of 240 patients recruited for this study, 177(73.8%) of them had significant bacteriuria, while Staphylococcus aureus (39%) was the predominant bacterial isolate. There were significant associations between UTIs and age, sex, marital status, and educational level. All bacterial isolates were found among females and mostly among ART users.

Conclusion: Most the recruited patients had asymptomatic urinary tract infections of which many were females and ART users. Considering this, regular screening should be done on HIV patients.

Keywords: Antiretroviral drugs; Urinary tract infections; Prevalence; Antimicrobial agents; HIV-infected patients


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